Saturday, January 14, 2017

Auxiliary verbs II (~어/아 내다, ~어/아 버리다, ~고 말다)

~어/아 내다

The verb 내다 means “produce/put forth” as in 용기를 내세요(Put forth courage) or 속도를 내세요(Speed up, lit. Produce speed). However, as an auxiliary verb, ~어/아 내다 means “do all the way (to the very end)”. It is used to express that although a certain task/action is troublesome or difficult, he/she completes the action to the very end (or does all the way). Compare the following two examples:


Notice that the first sentence simply indicates that the speaker finished reading the book in one day. On the other hand, the second sentence with ~어/아 내다 implies that although reading the book within a day was a difficult task, the speaker did it anyway. Here are more examples:


~어/아 버리다

The verb 버리다 means “throw (it) away/dismiss/abandon”, as shown in the following examples:


However, as an auxiliary verb ~어/아 버리다 means “do completely/end up doing/get (it) done”. Compare the following sentences:


The basic meanings of both sentences are the same. However, the message of the second sentence is stronger than the first sentence, since ~어/아 버리다 adds the meaning of “completeness of the action”.
~어/아 버리다 is similar to ~어/아 내다 in a sense that both are used to indicate the completeness of an action. However, unlike ~어/아 내다, ~어/아 버리다 does not imply that the completed action was a difficult task. Instead, depending on the context, ~어/아 버리다 is used to express a sense of regret or relief. Consider the following examples:


Losing a wallet is undesirable. Consequently, ~어/아 버리다 in the second sentence adds the sense of regret, while the first sentence simply states the past action. It indicates that losing a wallet is not what the speaker had expected or wished for. Here are more examples that may denote a sense of regret:


~어/아 버리다 can also signify a sense of relief. Consider the following two sentences:


Notice that the referential messages of both sentences are the same. However, ~어/아 버리다 in the second sentence adds a sense of relief since the task has come to an end. Here are more examples that indicate a sense of relief:


~고 말다

The verb 말다 means “stop”, as in 눈이 오다가 말았어요(It snowed but then it stopped). However, as an auxiliary verb, ~고 말다 means “end up (doing)”, and it implies that the completed action is against the subject’s intention or wish. It is used when the action is carried out despite the subject’s previous effort or wishes against the completed action. Compare the following two sentences:


Notice that the completed action (dying) is against the subject’s will. Here are more examples:


* Click to read related posts.
Grammar for Intermediates
Irregular verbs and adjectives (불규칙동사와 형용사)
Auxiliary verbs I
Auxiliary verbs II
Auxiliary verbs III
Auxiliary verbs IV

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