Sunday, July 3, 2016

Sentence-final endings ~지요

Typical sentence-final endings are speech level endings, such as the deferential, polite, intimate, and plain endings. However, sentence-final endings also include various sentence-final suffixes, such as 지, 군, and 네. These suffixes, combined with 요 “the politeness marker” can serve as sentence final endings that convey the speaker’s various psychological states or attitudes. This unit introduces three sentence-final endings, ~지요, ~군요, and ~네요.

The sentence-final ending ~지요

The sentence-final ending ~지요 is a one-form ending that indicates one of the following four mental states or attitudes of the speaker: (i) seeking agreement, (ii) asking a question with a belief that the hearer has the answer, (iii) assuring information, and (iv) suggesting. The speaker’s intonation as well as contextual factors determines which among the four moods or attitudes the ending indicates.

(1) Seeking agreement (with a rising intonation)

Consider the following two examples:


Notice that the ending ~어/아요 in the first sentence simply asks the message in a straightforward manner. On the other hand, the ending ~지요 in the second sentence indicates that the speaker seeks agreement while asking the same question. Here are more examples:


(2) Asking a question, believing that the hearer has the answer (with a rising intonation)


Again, the ending ~어/아요 in the first sentence simply asks the message in a direct manner. However, the second sentence with the ending ~지요 implies that the speaker believes that the hearer has the answer. Here are more examples:


(3) Assuring information (with a falling intonation)


The first sentence with the ending ~어/아요 simply states the message. On the other hand, the ending ~지요 in the second sentence indicates that the speaker assures of the referential message. Here are more examples:


(4) Suggesting (with a falling intonation)


The first sentence with the ending ~어/아요 is a direct request. However, the second sentence is a suggestion because of the ending ~지요. Here are more examples:


The honorific suffix ~(으)시 can be optionally used along with ~지요 to make the suggestion sound more polite, as shown in the following examples:


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