Sunday, October 9, 2016

Other Particles-2 (마다, 마저, 조차, 밖에)


The particle 마다 means “every” or “each”, as shown in the examples below:

마저 and 조차

The particles 마저 or 조차 are used to express “even”. Consider the following examples:

The meanings of 마저 and 조차 are similar to that of 까지(even). However, differing from 까지, the particles 마저 and 조차 are in general associated with unfavorable or unsought contents. Compare the following two sentences:

Although the translation of both examples are the same, the second example with 마저 implies that meeting Thomas’ girlfriend was not a favorable event, whereas the first example with 까지 simply indicates “including (even)”. Here are more examples:


The particle 밖에 is used to indicate “only” or “nothing but” in English. The meaning of 밖에 is similar to that of 만(only). However, differing from 만, the particle 밖에 always co-occurs with the negative predicate. For instance, compare the following sentences:

Notice that although the meanings of both sentences are similar, the second sentence ends in a negative 없어요(do not have). Here are more examples:

* Click to read related posts.
Grammar for Intermediates
Particles Part.1 (What are the particles in Korean)
Particles Part.2 (Case Particles)
Particles Part.3 (Special Particles)
Other Particles-1 (보다, 처럼, 같이, 만큼)

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