Wednesday, June 10, 2015

Particles Part.2 (Case Particles)

One unique characteristic of Korean is that nouns are typically marked by particles. There is no corresponding equivalent in English. Korean has two types of particles: case particles and special particles. Case particles indicate the syntactic role of the noun to which they are attached. The other type is “special particles” whose function is not to indicate syntactic roles of the noun but rather to add special meanings, such as indicating the noun as a topic of the sentence, emphasizing the singularity of the noun, and so on.

Through this post, we are going to study about these Case Particles briefly.

* Case Particles
The subject case particle 「이/가」

The subject case particle 이/가 is a two-form particle. 이 is used when the particle comes after a noun that ends in a consonant, and 가 is used when the particle comes after a noun that ends in a vowel. The principle of having two forms resembles the use in English of “a/an”. However, the rule is the opposite in that “an” is used before a noun that begins with a vowel and “a” is used before a noun that begins with a consonant.

The subject particle 이/가
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The direct object particle 「을/를」

The direct object refers to a noun that experiences the action indicated by the verb. In English the direct object of the sentence is typically determined by the place where it appears. For instance, the direct object of the sentence “I eat steak” is “steak”, as the word “steak” appears after the verb “eat”. In Korean, however the direct object is primarily determined by the direct object particle 을/를. Just like the subject particle, the direct object particle 을/를 is a two-form case particle: 을 is used when the preceding noun ends in a consonant, and 를 is used when the preceding noun ends in a vowel.

* The direct object particle 을/를

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The Case Particle 「(으)로」

The case particle (으)로 is a two-form particle: 으로 appears after a noun that ends in a consonant as in 책으로 (by books). 로 appears after a noun that ends in a vowel as in 버스로(by bus) or the consonant ㄹ as in 신발로(by shoes). The particle (으)로 can express the following five things: (1) means, (2) direction, (3) selection, (4) the change of state, and (5) reason.

The Case Particle (으)로
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The Case Particle 「의」

The case particle 의 indicates the possessor and possession relationship between two nouns, as in 제임스의 방(James’ room). The first noun is typically the possessor, since it is attached by the particle, and the second noun is the possession. The case particle 의 is a one-form particle. It is the same regardless of whether it attaches to a noun that ends in a vowel or a consonant.

The Case Particle 의
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The Case Particle 「에」


The case particle 에 is a one-form particle that expresses four things: (1) the static location, (2) the goal of the action, (3) times, and (4) quantity.

The Case Particle 에
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The Case Particles 「와/과, (이)랑, 하고」

The case particles 와/과, (이)랑, and 하고 mean “and”. Their primary function is to link nouns together.
First, let us discuss the particle 와/과. The particle 와/과 is a two-form particle. 와 is used with the noun that ends in a vowel, and 과 is used with the noun that ends in a consonant. The particle 와/과 tends to be used in formal or written communication.

The Case Particles 와/과
The particle (이)랑 tends to be used for more informal and/or colloquial settings. The particle (이)랑 is also a two-form particle. 이랑 is used with a noun that ends in a consonant, and 랑 is used with a noun that ends in a vowel.

*The Case Particles (이)랑
The particle 하고 is a one-form particle that comes after a noun regardless of whether it ends in a vowel or a consonant. There is no apparent meaning difference between 하고 and the other two particles 와/과 and (이)랑. However, 하고 seems to be less informal than 와/과 but more formal than (이)랑.

The Case Particles 하고
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The Case Particle 「에서」

The case particle 에서 is a one-form particle and is used to express two things: (1) the dynamic location, or (2) the source of action.

The Case Particles 에서
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The Case Particles 「한테, 에게, 께」

The case particles 한테, 에게, and 께 are one-form particles that mark the animate indirect object of the sentence, corresponding with “to” in English.

The particle 한테 is most widely used in colloquial settings.

The Case Particles 한테

The particle 에게 is used instead of 한테 in more formal usage such as written communication.

The Case Particles 에게

When the indirect object is an the esteemed person or senior, such as one’s boss, teachers, and parents, the particle 께 can be optionally used instead of 한테 or 에게. The particle 께 is another indirect object particle, used to indicate honorific meanings to the esteemed indirect object.

The Case Particles 께
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The Case Particles 「한테서, 에게서」

The case particles 한테서 and 에게서 are both one-form particles. These particles mark an animate source, corresponding to “from” in English. The only difference between 한테서 and 에게서 is that the former is used in colloquial settings whereas the latter is used for a more formal context.

The Case Particles 한테서 and 에게서
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* Click to read related posts.
Grammar for Beginners
Particles Part.1 (What are the Particles in Korean)
Particles Part.3 (Special Particles)

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