Saturday, June 6, 2015

Copula (Be & Be Not, 이다 & 아니다)

In English, copulas “am”, “are”, and/or “is” are used to indicate the equational expression, as in “Sam is a student”. For the equational expression, Korean has the copula 이다 & 아니다.

We use copula to indicate the equational expression. The usage of copula In Korean is also same with English. In English, we use "be" & "be not" which is transformed by the subject in a sentence. In Korean, we use "이다" & "아니다" which is transformed by situation & context of a sentence. The dictionary form for the Korean copula is 이다. The stem of the copula is 이. I explained how to make different endings in the other post. (Endings of Sentences)

* Copula(be & be not)

In the other post, we study that stem goes with -어요/-아요 to be made polite sentence. (The Polite Speech Level) But copula does not follow the rules. When the stem 이-/아니이 meet -어요, ending become -에요.

If there is a subject in a sentence, it must be used with particle. There are 4 particles being used with subject, 은/는 & 이/가. Choosing a particle depends on the situation and context. When the subject ends in consonant, 은/이 is used, 는/가 goes with the subject ends in vowel letters. We are going to study about those particles in another post.

* Click to read related posts.
Grammar for Beginners
Endings of Sentences
The Polite Speech Level
Particles Part.1 (What are the particles in Korean)
The Verb of Existence and Location (있다 & 없다)
Negation (부정문)

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