Monday, July 27, 2015

The Case Particle 「와/과, (이)랑, 하고」

The case particles 와/과, (이)랑, and 하고 mean “and”. Their primary function is to link nouns together.

와/과

First, let us discuss the particle 와/과. The particle 와/과 is a two-form particle. 와 is used with the noun that ends in a vowel, and 과 is used with the noun that ends in a consonant. The particle 와/과 tends to be used in formal or written communication.


(이)

The particle (이)랑 tends to be used for more informal and/or colloquial settings. The particle (이)랑 is also a two-form particle. 이랑 is used with a noun that ends in a consonant, and 랑 is used with a noun that ends in a vowel.


하고

The particle 하고 is a one-form particle that comes after a noun regardless of whether it ends in a vowel or a consonant. There is no apparent meaning difference between 􄞮􁼶 and the other two particles 와/과 and (이)랑. However, 하고 seems to be less informal than 와/과 but more formal than (이)랑.


When the subject is understood from the context, it can be omitted. In such cases, the noun with 와/과, (이)랑, or 하고 can stand alone, as in "수잔이 토마스와 커피를 마셔요(Susan drinks coffee with Thomas)”. Then, the translation of the particles is “with” rather than “and”.

* Click to read related posts.
Grammar for Beginners
Particles Part.1 (What are the particles in Korean)
Particles Part.2 (Case Particles)
The Subject Case Particle 「이/가」
The Direct Object Particle 「을/를」
The Case particle 「(으)로」
The Case particle 「의」
The Case particle 「에」
The Case particle 「에서」
The Case particle 「한테, 에게, 께」
The Case particle 「한테서, 에게서」
Particles Part.3 (Special Particles)

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