First, let us discuss the particle 와/과. The particle 와/과 is a two-form particle. 와 is used with the noun that ends in a vowel, and 과 is used with the noun that ends in a consonant. The particle 와/과 tends to be used in formal or written communication.
The particle (이)랑 tends to be used for more informal and/or colloquial settings. The particle (이)랑 is also a two-form particle. 이랑 is used with a noun that ends in a consonant, and 랑 is used with a noun that ends in a vowel.
The particle 하고 is a one-form particle that comes after a noun regardless of whether it ends in a vowel or a consonant. There is no apparent meaning difference between and the other two particles 와/과 and (이)랑. However, 하고 seems to be less informal than 와/과 but more formal than (이)랑.
When the subject is understood from the context, it can be omitted. In such cases, the noun with 와/과, (이)랑, or 하고 can stand alone, as in "수잔이 토마스와 커피를 마셔요(Susan drinks coffee with Thomas)”. Then, the translation of the particles is “with” rather than “and”.
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Grammar for Beginners
Particles Part.1 (What are the particles in Korean)
Particles Part.2 (Case Particles)
- The Subject Case Particle 「이/가」
- The Direct Object Particle 「을/를」
- The Case particle 「(으)로」
- The Case particle 「의」
- The Case particle 「에」
- The Case particle 「에서」
- The Case particle 「한테, 에게, 께」
- The Case particle 「한테서, 에게서」
Particles Part.3 (Special Particles)
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